Nouns - Plural Forms

 

The plural forms of German nouns can have the endings n/en, e, r/er, s or no ending at all. However, there are no binding rules. The following table contains tendency rules - plural forms which are used very often with certain endings. But be careful: There are many exceptions. Most of the nouns have the endings -e or -en. Sometimes the vowels of the singular forms a, o, u and au become ä, ö, ü and äu in the plural forms.

In the German language, only one plural form of the definite article exists. Every noun in the plural form - no matter if masculine, feminine or neuter - has the definite article die. There is no plural form of the indefinite article which means that the nouns in the plural stand without article.

German Singular English Singular

German Pural

     
     
Determination by meanings    
     

family names

  -s
die Familie f Meier [di: fa'mi:liə 'maiɐ] the family Meier die Meiers pl [di: 'maiɐs]
die Familie f Müller [di: fa'mi:liə 'mʏlɐ] the family Müller die Müllers pl [di: 'mʏlɐs]
     

English nouns

  -s
Meeting nt ['mi:tɪŋ] meeting Meetings nt pl ['mi:tɪŋs]
Team nt [ti:m] team Teams nt pl [ti:ms]
     
     
Determination by gender    
     

The plural forms of most of the
masculine and neuter nouns
end
in -e. Feminine nouns always

have an Umlaut in their plural

form, masculine nouns

sometimes.

  -e
Maus f [maus] mouse Mäuse f pl ['mɔyzə]
Saal m [za:l] hall Säle m pl ['zɛ:lə]
     

The plural forms of most of the
feminine nouns, of all the
masculine nouns of the
n-declension, of most of the
foreign nouns and of some
neuter nouns end in -(e)n.

  -e
Nase f ['na:zə] nose Nasen f pl ['na:zən]
Junge m ['jʊŋə] boy Jungen m pl ['jʊŋən]
Auge nt ['augə] eye Augen nt pl ['augən]
     

The plural forms of most of the
neuter nouns and of some
masculine nouns end in -er.
Most of these nouns have an
Umlaut in the their plural form.

  -e
Tuch nt [tu:x] scarf Tücher nt pl ['ty:çɐ]
Strauch m [ʃtraux] shrub, bush Sträucher m pl ['ʃtrɔyçɐ]
     
     
Determination by endings  
     

-a

  -s or -en
Kamera f ['kaməra] camera Kameras f pl ['kaməras]
Liga f ['li:ga] league Ligen f pl ['li:gən]
   

 

-al

  -e
Regal nt [re'ga:l] shelf Regale nt pl [re'ga:lə]
   

 

-and

  -en
Doktorand m [dɔkto'rant] doctoral candidate Doktoranden m pl [dɔkto'randən]
   

 

-ant

  -en
Fabrikant m [fabri'kant] factory owner Fabrikanten m pl [fabri'kantən]
Praktikant m [prakti'kant] trainee Praktikanten m pl [prakti'kantən]
   

 

-ar

  -e
Kommissar m [kɔmɪ'sa:ɐ] inspector Kommissare m pl [kɔmɪ'sa:rə]
Inventar nt [ɪnvɛn'ta:ɐ] inventory Inventare nt pl [ɪnvɛn'ta:rə]
   

 

-är

  -e
Millionär m [mɪlio'nɛ:ɐ] millionaire Millionäre m pl [mɪlio'nɛ:rə]
Militär nt [mili'tɛ:ɐ] military Militäre nt pl [mili'tɛ:rə]
     

-ast

  -en
Cineast m [si:ne'ast] cineast Cineasten m pl [si:ne'astən]
Enthusiast m [ɛntu'ziast] enthusiast Enthusiasten m pl [ɛntu'ziastən]
   

 

-at

  -en
Bürokrat m [byro'kra:t] bureaucrat Bürokraten m pl [byro'kra:tən]
Kandidat m [kandi'da:t] candidate Kandidaten m pl [kandi'da:tən]
   

 

-ator

  -en
Diktator m [dɪk'ta:to:ɐ] despot Diktatoren m pl [dɪkta:'to:rən]
Restaurator m [restau'ra:to:ɐ] restorer Restauratoren m pl [restaura:'to:rən]
   

 

-chen (diminutive form)

  -
Mädchen nt ['mɛ:tçən] girl Mädchen nt pl ['mɛ:tçən]
Kaninchen nt [ka'ni:nçən] rabbit Kaninchen nt pl [ka'ni:nçən]
   

 

-cht

  -en or -e
Flucht f [flʊxt] escape Fluchten f pl [flʊxtən]
Nacht f [naxt] night Nächte f pl ['nɛç]
   

 

in -e

  -n
Größe f ['grø:sə] size Größen f pl ['grø:sən]
Karte f ['kartə] card Karten f pl ['kartən]
   

 

-ei

  -en
Bäckerei f [bɛkə'rai] bakery Bäckereien f pl [bɛkə'raiən]
Metzgerei f [mɛtsgə'rai] butcher shop Metzgereien f pl [mɛtsgə'raiən]
     

-el

  -
Löffel m ['lœl] spoon Löffel m pl ['lœl]
Viertel nt ['fɪrl] quarter Viertel nt pl ['fɪrl]
     

-en

  -
Nutzen m ['nʊtsən] advantage, benefit Nutzen m pl ['nʊtsən]
Schaden m ['ʃa:dən] damage Schäden m pl ['ʃɛ:dən]
   

 

-ent

  -en
Student m [ʃtu'dɛnt] student (at university) Studenten m pl [ʃtu'dɛntən]
Dozent m [do'tsɛnt] lecturer Dozenten m pl [do'tsɛntən]
   

 

-er

  -
Lehrer m ['le:rɐ] teacher Lehrer m pl ['le:rɐ]
Computer m [kɔm'pju:tɐ] computer Computer m pl [kɔm'pju:tɐ]
   

 

-ett

  -e
Ballett nt [ba'lɛt] ballet Ballette nt pl [ba'lɛ]
Parkett nt [par'kɛt] parquet (flooring) Parkette nt pl [par'kɛ]
   

 

-eur/-ör

  -e
Friseur/Frisör m ['frizø:ɐ] hairdresser Friseure/Frisöre m pl ['frizø:rə]
Ingenieur m [ɪnʒe'niø:ɐ] engineer Ingenieure m pl [ɪnʒe'niø:rə]
   

 

-graph/-graf

  -en
Paragraph m [para'gra:f] paragraph Paragraphen m pl [para'gra:fən]
Choreograph m [koreo'gra:f] choreographer Choreographen m pl [koreo'gra:fən]
   

 

-heit

  -en
Freiheit f ['fraihait] freedom Freiheiten f pl ['fraihaitən]
Schönheit f ['ʃø:nhait] beauty Schönheiten f pl ['ʃø:nhaitən]
     

-i

  -s
Mutti f ['mʊti] mum(my), mom(my) Muttis f pl ['mʊtis]
Taxi nt ['taksi] taxi Taxis nt pl ['taksis]
   

 

-ial

  -ien
Material nt [mate'ria:l] material Materialien nt pl [mate'ria:liən]
   

 

-ich

  -e
Teppich m ['tɛpɪç] carpet Teppiche m pl ['tɛpɪçə]
Pfirsich m ['pfɪrzɪç] peach Pfirsiche m pl ['pfɪrzɪçə]
   

 

-ie

  -n
Familie f [fa'mi:liə] family Familien f pl [fa'mi:liən]
Industrie f [ɪndʊs'tri:] industry Industrien f pl ['ɪndʊs'tri:ən]
   

 

-ig

  -e
König m ['kø:nɪç] king Könige m pl ['kø:nɪgə]
   

 

-ik

  -en
Graphik f ['gra:fɪk] diagram Graphiken f pl ['gra:fɪkən]
Technik f ['teçnɪk] technology Techniken f pl ['teçnɪkən]
   

 

-iker

  -
Chemiker m ['çe:mɪkɐ] chemist Chemiker m pl ['çe:mɪkɐ]
Physiker m ['fy:zɪkɐ] physicist Physiker m pl ['fy:zɪkɐ]
   

 

-il

  -e
Profil nt [pro'fi:l] profile Profile nt pl [pro'fi:lə]
Ventil nt [vɛnˈti:l] valve Ventile nt pl [vɛnˈti:lə]
   

 

-in (derived from masculine nouns)

  -nen
Freundin f (Freund m) ['frɔyndɪn] friend (female) Freundinnen f pl ['frɔyndɪnən]
Lehrerin f (Lehrer m) ['le:rərɪn] teacher (female) Lehrerinnen f pl ['le:rərɪnən]
   

 

-ion

  -en
Diskussion f [dɪskʊ'sio:n] discussion Diskussionen f pl [dɪskʊ'sio:nən]
Situation f [zitua'tsio:n] situation Situationen f pl [zitua'tsio:nən]
   

 

-ismus

  -en
Anglizismus m [aŋgli'tsɪsmʊs] anglicism Anglizismen m pl [aŋgli'tsɪsmən]
   

 

-ist

  -en
Kommunist m [kɔmu'nɪst] communist Kommunisten m pl [kɔmu'nɪstən]
Tourist m [tu'rɪst] tourist Touristen m pl [tu'rɪstən]
   

 

-ium

  -en
Präsidium nt [prɛ'zi:diʊm] police headquarters Präsidien nt pl [prɛ'zi:diən]
Studium nt ['ʃtu:diʊm] studies Studien nt pl ['ʃtu:diən]
   

 

-keit

  -en
Abhängigkeit f ['aphɛŋɪçkait] dependence Abhängigkeiten f pl ['aphɛŋɪçkaitən]
Möglichkeit f ['mø:klɪçkait] possibility Möglichkeiten f pl ['mø:klɪçkaitən]
   

 

-lein (diminutive form)

  -
Männlein nt ['mɛnlain] little man Männlein nt pl ['mɛnlain]
Büchlein nt ['by:çlain] little book Büchlein nt pl ['by:çlain]
   

 

-ling

  -e
Zwilling m ['tsvɪlɪŋ] twin Zwillinge m pl ['tsvɪlɪŋə]
Feigling m ['faiklɪŋ] coward Feiglinge m pl ['faiklɪŋə]
   

 

-loge

  -n
Biologe m [bio'lo:gə] biologist Biologen m pl [bio'lo:gən]
Psychologe m [psyço'lo:gə] psychologist Psychologen m pl [psyço'lo:gən]
   

 

-ma

  -s, -ta or -en
Klima nt ['kli:ma] climate Klimas nt pl ['kli:mas]
    Klimata nt pl ['kli:mata]
Thema nt ['te:ma] subject, topic Themen nt pl ['te:mən]
   

 

-ment

  -e
Argument nt [argu'mɛnt] argument Argumente nt pl [argu'mɛn]
Fundament nt [fʊnda'mɛnt] foundations, basis Fundamente nt pl [fʊnda'mɛn]
   

 

-ner

  -
Partner m ['partnɐ] partner Partner m pl ['partnɐ]
Rentner m ['rɛntnɐ] pensioner Rentner m pl ['rɛntnɐ]
   

 

-nis

  -se
Ereignis nt [ɛɐ'aignɪs] event Ereignisse nt pl [ɛɐ'aignɪ]
Ergebnis nt [ɛɐ'ge:pnɪs] result Ergebnisse nt pl [ɛɐ'ge:pnɪsə]
   

 

-nz

  -en
Arroganz f [aro'gants] arrogance Arroganzen f pl [aro'gantsən]
Intelligenz f [ɪntɛli'gɛnts] intelligence Intelligenzen f pl [ɪntɛli'gɛntsən]
   

 

-o

  -s
Auto nt ['auto] car Autos nt pl ['autos]
Kino nt ['ki:no] cinema Kinos nt pl ['ki:nos]
Exceptions: Konto nt ['kɔnto] account Konten nt pl ['kɔntən]
  Risiko nt ['ri:ziko] risk Risiken nt pl ['ri:zikən]
  Solo nt ['zo:lo] solo Soli nt pl ['zo:li]
   

 

-om

  -en or -e
Ökonom m [øko'no:m] economist Ökonomen m pl [øko'no:mən]
Metronom nt [metro'no:m] metronome Metronome nt pl [metro'no:mə]
   

 

-on

  -a
Lexikon nt ['lɛksikɔn] dictionary Lexika nt pl ['lɛksika]
   

 

-or

  -en
Direktor m [di'rɛkto:ɐ] director, head(master) Direktoren m pl [dirɛk'to:rən]
Motor m ['mo:to:ɐ] motor Motoren m pl [mo:'to:rən]
   

 

-schaft

  -en
Freundschaft f ['frɔyntʃaft] friendship Freundschaften f pl ['frɔyntʃaftən]
Wirtschaft f ['vɪrtʃaft] economy, pub Wirtschaften f pl ['vɪrtʃaftən]
   

 

-tät

  -en
Identität f [idɛnti'tɛ:t] identity Identitäten f pl [idɛnti'tɛ:tən]
Qualität f [kvali'tɛ:t] quality Qualitäten f pl [kvali'tɛ:tən]
   

 

-thek(e)

  -n or -en
Apotheke f [apo'te:kə] pharmacy Apotheken f pl [apo'te:kən]
Bibliothek f [biblio'te:k] library Bibliotheken f pl [biblio'te:kən]
   

 

-tum

  -tümer
Besitztum nt [bə'zɪtstu:m] property Besitztümer nt pl [bə'zɪtsty:mɐ]
Irrtum m ['ɪrtu:m] error, mistake Irrtümer m pl ['ɪrty:mɐ]
   

 

-tur

  -en
Natur f [na'tu:ə] nature Naturen f pl [na'tu:rən]
Kultur f [kʊl'tu:ə] culture Kulturen f pl [kʊl'tu:rən]
     

-um

  -a or -en
Praktikum nt ['praktikʊm] internship Praktika nt pl ['praktika]
Museum nt [mu'ze:ʊm] museum Museen nt pl [mu'ze:ən]
   

 

-ung

  -en
Bedeutung f [bə'dɔytʊŋ] meaning Bedeutungen f pl [bə'dɔytʊŋən]
Enttäuschung f [ɛn'tɔyʃʊŋ] disappointment Enttäuschungen f pl [ɛn'tɔyʃʊŋən]
     

-y

  -s
Hobby nt ['hɔbi] hobby Hobbys nt pl ['hɔbis]
Lobby f ['lɔbi] lobby Lobbys f pl ['lɔbis]
   

 

-zeug

  -e
Flugzeug nt ['flu:ktsɔyk] (aero)plane Flugzeuge nt pl ['flu:ktsɔygə]
Werkzeug nt ['vɛrktsɔyk] tool Werkzeuge nt pl ['vɛrktsɔygə]